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翻译公司:英文菜名翻译 & 翻译技巧

来源:翻译公司 时间:2020-11-17 18:21

西餐,韩国料理,日本料理风靡中国,但是,作为博大精深的中国文化的一部分,我也希望中国菜出现在世界的各个角落。

收藏 | 英文菜名翻译 & 翻译技巧

 

除了成语、古诗和中药,就是中文的菜名最难翻译,比如“红烧狮子头”(Stewed Pork Ball in Brown Sauce)、“回锅肉”(Sautéed Sliced Pork with Pepper and Chili)、“糖醋排骨”(Sweet and Sour Spare Ribs)等等。

像中国诗词,出色的翻译也只能传达给外国人基本含义,中国菜也不例外。我们总结了以下规则在翻译中国菜名时可供参考:

翻 译 技 巧

一 、以主料为主,配料或配汁为辅的翻译原则

1. 菜肴的主料和配料

主料(名称/形状)+with+配料

如:松仁香菇 Chinese Mushrooms with Pine Nuts

2.菜肴的主料和配汁

主料 with /in+汤汁(Sauce)

如:冰梅凉瓜 Bitter Melon in Plum Sauce

二 、以烹制方法为主,原料为辅的翻译原则

1.菜肴的做法和主料

做法(动词过去分词)+主料(名称/形状)

如:拌双耳 Tossed Black and White Fungus

2.菜肴的做法、主料和配料

做法(动词过去分词)+主料(名称/形状)+配料

如:豌豆辣牛肉 Sautéed Spicy Beef and Green Peas

3.菜肴的做法、主料和汤汁

做法(动词过去分词) + 主料(名称/形状)+with /in+汤汁

如:川北凉粉 Tossed Clear Noodles with Chili Sauce

三 、以形状、口感为主,原料为辅的翻译原则

1.菜肴形状或口感以及主配料

形状/口感 + 主料

如:玉兔馒头 Rabbit-Shaped Mantou 脆皮鸡 Crispy Chicken

2.菜肴的做法、形状或口感、做法以及主配料

做法(动词过去分词)+ 形状/口感 + 主料 + 配料

如:小炒黑山羊 Sautéed Sliced Lamb with Pepper and Parsley

四 、以人名、地名为主,原料为辅的翻译原则

1.菜肴的创始人(发源地)和主料

人名(地名)+ 主料

如:

麻婆豆腐 Mapo Tofu (Sautéed Tofu in Hot and Spicy Sauce)

广东点心 Cantonese Dim Sum

2.介绍菜肴的创始人(发源地)、主配料及做法

做法(动词过去式)+ 主辅料 + 人名/地名 + Style

如:四川辣子鸡 Spicy Chicken, Sichuan Style 北京炸酱面 Noodles with Soy Bean Paste, Beijing Style

五 、体现中国餐饮文化,使用汉语拼音命名或音译的翻译原则

1.具有中国特色且被外国人接受的传统食品,本着推广汉语及中国餐饮文化的原则,使用汉语拼音。

如:饺子 Jiaozi 包子 Baozi 馒头 Mantou 花卷 Huajuan 烧麦 Shaomai

2.具有中国特色且已被国外主要英文字典收录的,使用汉语方言拼写或音译拼写的菜名,仍保留其原拼写方式。

如:豆腐 Tofu 宫保鸡丁 Kung Pao Chicken 馄饨 Wonton

3. 中文菜肴名称无法体现其做法及主配料的,使用汉语拼音,并在后标注英文注释。

如:

佛跳墙 Fotiaoqiang (Steamed Abalone with Shark's Fin and Fish Maw in Broth)

锅贴 Guotie (Pan-Fried Dumplings)

窝头 Wotou (Steamed Corn/Black Rice Bun)

蒸饺 Steamed Jiaozi (Steamed Dumplings)

油条 Youtiao (Deep-Fried Dough Sticks)

汤圆 Tangyuan (Glutinous Rice Balls)

粽子 Zongzi (Glutinous Rice Wrapped in Bamboo Leaves)

元宵 Yuanxiao (Glutinous Rice Balls for Lantern Festival)

驴打滚儿 Lǘdagunr (Glutinous Rice Rolls Stuffed with Red Bean Paste)

豆汁儿 Douzhir (Fermented Bean Drink)

艾窝窝 Aiwowo (Steamed Rice Cakes with Sweet Stuffing)

六 、可数名词单复数使用原则

菜单中的可数名词基本使用复数,但在整道菜中只有一件或太细碎无法数清的用单数。

如:

蔬菜面 Noodles with Vegetables

葱爆羊肉 Sautéed Lamb Slices with Scallion

七 、介词in和with在汤汁、配料中的用法

1.如主料是浸在汤汁或配料中时,使用in连接。

如:豉汁牛仔骨 Steamed Beef Ribs in Black Bean Sauce

2.如汤汁或蘸料和主料是分开的,或是后浇在主菜上的,则用with连接。

如:泡椒鸭丝 Shredded Duck with Pickled Peppers

八 、酒类的译法原则

进口酒类的英文名称仍使用其原文,国产酒类以其注册的英文为准,如果酒类本身没有英文名称的,则使用其中文名称的汉语拼音。

英 文 翻 译

八大菜系

Eight Famous Cuisines

鲁菜 Lu Cuisine (Shandong Cuisine)

川菜 Chuan Cuisine (Sichuan Cuisine)

粤菜 Yue Cuisine (Guangdong Cuisine)

闽菜 Min Cuisine (Fujian Cuisine)

苏菜 Su Cuisine (Jiangsu Cuisine)

浙菜 Zhe Cuisine (Zhejiang Cuisine)

湘菜 Xiang Cuisine (Hunan Cuisine)

徽菜 Hui Cuisine (Anhui Cuisine)

常见菜谱

1.北京烤鸭 roast Beijing duck

2.辣子鸡丁 saute diced chicken with hot peppers

3.宫爆鸡丁 saute diced chicken with peanuts

4.红烧鲤鱼 braised common carp

5.茄汁虾仁 saute fish slices with bamboo shoots

6.涮羊肉 instant boiled sliced mutton

7.糖醋里脊 pork fillets with sweet&sour sauce

8.炒木须肉 saute shredded pork with eggs&black fungus

9.榨菜肉丝汤 pork with Sichuan cabbage soup

10.生炒肚片 saute fish maw slices

11.回锅肉 saute pork in hot sauce

12.糖醋排骨 saute chops with sweet&sour sauce

13.家常豆腐 fride beancurd with sliced pork&pepper

14.醋溜白菜 saute cabbage&pepper in sweet&sour sauce

15.鱼香茄子 saute eggplant with fish flavor

16 麻婆豆腐 stwed beancurd with minced pork in pepper sauce

17.韭菜炒蛋 saute leek sprouts&eggs

面食与糕点

1肉/鸡丝汤面 noodles in soup with pork/chicken

2.担担面 noodles with sesame paste&pea sprouts

3.龙须面 saute fine noodles with shredded chicken

4.炒米线 saute rice noodles with green bean sprouts

5.杂酱面 soy beans in minced meat&noodles

6.酸辣汤面 noodles in sour pungent soup

7.排骨面 soup noodles with pork rib

8.阳春面 noodles in superior soup

9.凉拌面 cool braised noodles

10.肉包 steamed meat dumpling

11.豆沙包 bean paste dumpling

12.水晶包 stuffde bread with lard&sugar

13.叉烧包 stuffed bread with roast pork

14.水煎包 lightly fried Chinese bread

15.花卷 twist

16.小笼包 steamed small meat dumpling in basket

17.馄饨 ravioli;hun-tun

18.大饼 bannock

19.油条 twistde cruller

20.豆腐脑 beancurd jelly

21.茶叶蛋 egg boiled with salt&tea

22.八宝饭 steamed glutinous rice with eight treasures

23.葱油饼 green onion pie

24.黄桥烧饼 crisp short cakes

25.月饼 moon cake

26.酒酿 sweet ferment rice

27.麻花 fried dough twist

28.元宵 rice glue ball

中式早点

烧饼 Clay oven rolls

油条 Fried bread stick

韭菜盒 Fried leek dumplings

水饺 Boiled dumplings

蒸饺 Steamed dumplings

馒头 Steamed buns

割包 Steamed sandwich

饭团 Rice and vegetable roll

蛋饼 Egg cakes

皮蛋 100-year egg

咸鸭蛋 Salted duck egg

豆浆 Soybean milk

稀饭 Rice porridge

白饭 Plain white rice

油饭 Glutinous oil rice

糯米饭 Glutinous rice

卤肉饭 Braised pork rice

蛋炒饭 Fried rice with egg

地瓜粥 Sweet potato congee

馄饨面 Wonton & noodles

刀削面 Sliced noodles

麻辣面 Spicy hot noodles

麻酱面 Sesame paste noodles

鸭肉面 Duck with noodles

鳝鱼面 Eel noodles

乌龙面 Seafood noodles

榨菜肉丝面 Pork , pickled mustard green noodles

牡蛎细面 Oyster thin noodles

板条 Flat noodles

米粉 Rice noodles

炒米粉 Fried rice noodles

冬粉 Green bean noodle

鱼丸汤 Fish ball soup

贡丸汤 Meat ball soup

蛋花汤 Egg & vegetable soup

蛤蜊汤 Clams soup

牡蛎汤 Oyster soup

紫菜汤 Seaweed soup

酸辣汤 Sweet & sour soup

馄饨汤 Wonton soup

猪肠汤 Pork intestine soup

肉羹汤 Pork thick soup

鱿鱼汤 Squid soup

花枝羹 Squid thick soup

爱玉 Vegetarian gelatin

糖葫芦 Tomatoes on sticks

长寿桃 Longevity Peaches

芝麻球 Glutinous rice sesame balls

麻花 Hemp flowers

双胞胎 Horse hooves

点 心

牡蛎煎 Oyster omelet

臭豆腐 Stinky tofu (Smelly tofu)

油豆腐 Oily bean curd

麻辣豆腐 Spicy hot bean curd

虾片 Prawn cracker

虾球 Shrimp balls

春卷 Spring rolls

蛋卷 Chicken rolls

碗糕 Salty rice pudding

筒仔米糕 Rice tube pudding

红豆糕 Red bean cake

绿豆糕 Bean paste cake

糯米糕 Glutinous rice cakes

萝卜糕 Fried white radish patty

芋头糕 Taro cake

肉圆 Taiwanese Meatballs

水晶饺 Pyramid dumplings

肉丸 Rice-meat dumplings

豆干 Dried tofu

冰 类

绵绵冰 Mein mein ice

麦角冰 Oatmeal ice

地瓜冰 Sweet potato ice

红豆牛奶冰 Red bean with milk ice

八宝冰 Eight treasures ice

豆花 Tofu pudding

果 汁

甘蔗汁 Sugar cane juice

酸梅汁 Plum juice

杨桃汁 Star fruit juice

青草茶 Herb juice

鸡鸭鸽

Poultry

1.脆皮炸子鸡(半)Fried Chicken (Half)

2.红烧石岐项鸽Roast Pigeon

3.豉油皇乳鸽Pigeon w/ Soy Sauce

4.姜葱油淋鸡(半)Green Onion Chicken (Half)

5.北京片皮鸭Peking Duck

6.酸甜明炉烧鸭(半)Roast Duck (Half)

7.柠檬鸡球Lemon Chicken

8.西芹腰果鸡球Vegetable Cashew Chicken

9.咖喱鸡Curry Chicken

10.豉汁炒鸡球Chicken w/ Black Bean Sauce

11.四川炒鸡球Szechuan Chicken

12.菜远鸡球Chicken w/ Tender Green

13.宫保鸡球Kung Pao Chicken

14.豉汁黄毛鸡(半)Chicken w/ Soy Sauce

15.咕噜鸡Sweet & Sour Chicken

16.八珍发菜扒鸭(半)Combination Duck (Half)

17.子罗炒鸡片Ginger & Pineapple Chicken

18.游龙戏凤Chicken, Shrimp, Squid w/ Mixed Vegetable

19.龙凤琵琶豆腐Egg, Chicken, Shrimp, Steam Tofu

猪牛肉类

Meat

1.酸甜咕噜肉Sweet & Sour Pork

2.菜远炒排骨Spareribs w/ Tender Green

3.豉椒排骨Spareribs w/ Black Bean Sauce

4.凉瓜炆排骨Bitty Melon Spareribs

5.京都骨Peking Spareribs

6.椒盐排骨Pepper Salt Spareribs

7.豉椒焖排骨Spareribs w/ Black Bean, Pepper

8.菜远炒牛肉Broccoli Beef

9.凉瓜炒牛肉Bitty Melon Beef

10.黑椒牛仔骨Black Pepper Short Rib

11.椒盐牛仔骨Pepper Salt Short Rib

12.中式牛柳Chinese Style Beef

13.四川牛肉Szechuan Beef

14.干扁牛柳丝String Beef

15.柠檬牛肉Lemon beef

16.麻婆豆腐Mar-Boh Tofu

素菜类

Vegetarian

1.豪油冬菇Oyster Sauce Mushroom

2.什笙上素Bamboo Vegetable

3.红烧豆腐Fried Tofu

4.炒素丁Vegetable Roll

5.罗汉腐皮卷Vegetable Egg Roll

6.素咕噜肉Vegetarian Sweet and Sour

7.蒸山水豆腐Steam Tofu

8.鲜菇扒菜胆Mushroom Tender Green

9.炒杂菜Mixed Green Tender

10.清炒芥兰Chinese Green Tender

11.盐水菜心Salt Green Tender

12.干扁四季豆String Bean Western Style

13.上汤芥菜胆Mustard Green Tender

炒粉、面、饭

Rice Plate

1.龙虾干烧伊面Lobster Teriyaki Noodle

2.上汤龙虾捞面Lobster Noodle

3.杨州炒饭Yang Chow Fried Rice

4.虾仁炒饭Shrimp Fried Rice

5.咸鱼鸡粒炒饭Salted Egg Chicken Fried Rice

6.蕃茄牛肉炒饭Tomato w/ Beef Fried Rice

7.厨师炒饭House Fried Rice

8.生菜丝炒牛肉饭Beef Fried Rice w/ Lettuce

9.招牌炒面House Chow Mein

10.鸡球炒/煎面Chicken Chow Mein

11.蕃茄牛肉炒面Tomato Beef Chow Mein

12.海鲜炒/煎面Seafood Chow Mein

13.虾子姜葱捞面Ginger Green Onion Noodle

14.干烧伊面Teriyaki Noodle

15.鸡丝上汤窝面Chicken Noodle Soup

16.菜远炒牛河Vegetable Beef Chow Fun

17.豉椒排骨炒河Sparerib w/ Black Bean Chow Fun

18.星洲炒米粉Singapore Noodle (Hot Spice)

19.鸳鸯馒头Shanghai Buns (12)

20.上汤水饺Dumpling Soup

21.上汤云吞Won Ton soup

22.丝苗白饭Steam Rice

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